4,4'-Methylene-bis(2-chloroaniline) (MOCA)


Methylene bis 2,4 aniline (MOCA) (4,4-) is used to make polyurethane products that are a significant component of many common appliances. These are widely used in such items as gear systems in modern office and home appliances, sporting goods, mouldings for motor vehicle body parts and military equipment. The compound is commonly used as a coating to set other glues, plastics and adhesives. Its main purpose is to act as a curing agent for other polyurethane and elastomer compounds. It is essential for creating chemical reactions that bond other molecules in relatively stable complex structures which comprise these compounds.

Substance details

Substance name: 4,4'-Methylene-bis(2-chloroaniline) (MOCA)

CASR number: 101-14-4

Molecular formula: C13H12Cl2N2

Synonyms: 3,3'-Dichloro-4,4'-diaminodiphenyl methane; BOCA; Bis Amine; Cyanaset; DACPM; MOCA; MBOCA; Curene 442; di(4-amino-3-chlorophenyl)methane; 4,4'-diamino-3,3'-dichlorodiphenylmethane;4,4'-methylenebis(2-chloroaniline); p,p'-methylenebis(alpha-chloroaniline); methylene-bis-orthochloroaniline; bis-amine A; Cl-mda; curalin M; 4,4-Methylene bis(2-chloroaniline).

Physical properties

Tan to colourless solid with no odour.

Melting Point: 110°C

Specific Gravity: 1.44

Chemical properties

Methylene bis 2,4 aniline (MOCA) (4,4-) is a synthetic chemical used to make polyurethane. It is moderately soluble in water but soluble in alcohol, ether, organic and some solvents. It can be gradually broken down by the action of sunlight in air and by microscopic organisms in soil or water. When heated to the point of decomposing it gives off toxic fumes of hydrochloric acid, complex organic compounds and oxides of nitrogen.

Further information

The National Pollutant Inventory (NPI) holds data for all sources of Methylene bis 2,4 aniline (MOCA) emissions in Australia.


This depends on how much methylene bis 2,4 aniline (MOCA) (4,4-) you have been exposed to, for how long, and your current state of health. Exposure can result in symptoms such as distress in the digestive system as well as burning of the skin, hands and face where direct contact has taken place. Methylene bis 2,4 aniline (MOCA) (4,4-) is probably a cancer-causing agent in humans. It can interfere with the ability of blood to carry oxygen and result in headaches, dizziness, nausea and result in a bluish colour in the lips and skin.

Entering the body

Direct contact with the skin, eyes and inhalation of dust and or other particles to which it is attached.


People working in industries that produce or use the compound for manufacture of polyurethane products are most likely to be directly exposed to the compound. Exposure may take place where the compound has been disposed of in landfill or waste disposal sites.

Health guidelines

Worksafe Australia: 
The compound is probably carcinogen to humans, can readily be absorbed through the skin. Time weighted average exposure levels over an 8-hour period should be limited to no more than 0.22 milligrams per cubic metre of air.


The chemical properties of 4,4'- Methylenebis (2-Chloroaniline) indicate that about 43% will enter the water, 28% aquatic sediments, and 30% terrestrial soil. The concentration of 4,4'-Methylenebis (2-Chloroaniline) found in fish tissues is expected to be somewhat higher than the average concentration of 4,4'-Methylenebis (2-Chloroaniline) in the water from which the fish was taken. It can become concentrated in the root fibres of plants grown in soil that contains the compound. Can broken down by microscopic organisms in the soil or air. 4, 4'-Methylenebis (2-Chloroaniline) has high chronic toxicity to aquatic life. Insufficient data are available to predict the short-term effects on plants, birds, or land animals.

Entering the environment

It may enter the environment from industrial effluents or spills. Sunlight and air will breakdown the compound, as will the action of microorganisms in soil or water. It can be accumulated in the root systems of some plants and vegetables grown in soil from waste disposal sites where it has been disposed of. 4,4'-Methylenebis (2-Chloroaniline) is moderately soluble in water. It strongly attaches to soil particles if it is disposed of and is unlikely to enter groundwater. It does not readily evaporate from soil or water.

Where it ends up

It will remain strongly attached to soil particles if it is disposed of in landfills or waste sites. 4, 4'-Methylenebis (2-Chloroaniline) is moderately persistent in the environment with a half-life of between 20 to 200 days. It can accumulate in the roots of vegetables grown in soil that contain it as a contaminant.

Environmental guidelines

No national guidelines.

Industry sources

Released from industries producing and manufacturing polyurethane products, for example components for household appliances, cameras, computers, motor vehicle component manufacturers specialised motor car body shops.

Diffuse sources, and industry sources included in diffuse emissions data

Small quantities may be present in air or upon surfaces in the vicinity of plants that manufacture polyurethane products.

Natural sources

Not known to occur in nature.

Transport sources

No mobile sources.

Consumer products

Present as a component in relatively stable compounds which comprise polyurethane products such as sporting goods, footwear, computers, cameras, gear and bearing systems in household appliances, motor vehicle body parts and mouldings.

Sources used in preparing this information

  • ChemFinder WebServer Project (1995), 44methylenebis2chloroaniline (accessed, 30 May, 1999)
  • Environmental Defense Fund (1998), About The Chemicals, By Industrial Sector (accessed, 30 May, 1999)
  • National Environment Protection Council (1998), National Environment Protection Measure for the National Pollutant Inventory. (accessed, March, 1999)
  • National Occupational Health & Safety Commission, 1999. Methylene bis2chloroaniline (accessed, 30 May, 1999)
  • Technical Advisory Panel (1999), Final Report to the National Environment Protection Council.