Worldwide, industrial grade beryl is used as a feedstock for beryllium metal, alloys and oxide, all of which have many high-tech applications particularly in the nuclear, electronic and ceramic industries. Beryllium is a structural material in space technology, inertial guidance systems, additive to rocket fuels, moderator and reflector of neutrons in nuclear reactors (e.g. at ANSTO, Lucas Heights). Pure beryllium metal is used to make aircraft disc brakes, nuclear weapons and reactors, aircraft-satellite-space vehicle structures and instruments, X-ray transmission windows, missile parts, fuel containers, precision instruments, rocket propellants, navigational systems, heat shields, and mirrors. Beryllium alloys such as beryllium-copper are used in electrical connectors and relays, springs, precision instruments, aircraft engine parts, non-sparking tools, submarine cable housings and pivots, wheels, and pinions. More specifically, beryllium oxide is used in the manufacture of specialty electrical and high-technology ceramics, special glass, electronic heat sinks, electron tubes, electrical insulators, electronics components, microwave oven components, nuclear fuels and nuclear moderators, gyroscopes, military vehicle armour, rocket nozzles, and laser structural components. Beryllium chloride is used in refining beryllium ores and as a chemical reagent. Beryllium fluoride is used in refining beryllium and manufacturing beryllium alloys, and as a chemical reagent. Beryllium nitrate is used as a chemical reagent, a gas mantle hardener and in refining beryllium ores.
Beryllium and its compounds are mainly used in Australia in very small quantities in electronic equipment. The relevance of beryllium and its compounds to Australia 's environmental and public health stems not from its commercial use, but its presence in emissions from combustion of fossil fuels in, for example, coal-fired power stations.
Substance name: Beryllium & compounds
CASR number: 7440-41-7
Molecular formula: Be
Beryllium compounds include beryllium oxide (CASR# 1304-56-9), beryllium chloride (CASR# 7787-47-5), beryllium fluoride (CASR# 7787-49-7), beryllium hydroxide (CASR# 13327-32-7), beryllium phosphate (CASR# 13598-15-7), beryllium nitrate (CASR# 13597-99-4), beryllium sulfate (CASR# 13510-49-1), and beryllium
Pure beryllium is a hard, brittle, silvery metal.
Atomic Number: 4
Atomic Mass: 9.0
Melting Point: 1278°C
Boiling Point: 2970°C
Specific Gravity: 1.85
Properties vary widely depending on the particular compound. Beryllium oxide is a very good conductor of heat and a good electrical insulator. The beryllium-copper alloy has high strength, and good thermal and electrical conductivity. Generally, beryllium compounds have no particular smell and their flash points and flammability limits are unknown.
Beryllium oxide is a white powder with melting point of 2530°C and specific gravity of 3.0.
Beryllium chloride is a white to faintly yellow powder, deliquescent, with melting point of 399°C and a boiling point of 482°C.
Beryllium fluoride is a glassy, hygroscopic solid with melting point of 545°C and specific gravity of 2.0.
Beryllium nitrate is a white to slightly yellow crystals with melting point of 60°C.
Beryllium sulfate has a melting point of 550°C.
The two most important ores mined for the recovery of beryllium are beryl (CASR# 1302-52-9) and bertrandite (CASR# 12161-82-9). Very pure gem-quality beryl is better known as either aquamarine or emerald. Most of the beryllium ore mined is processed into beryllium oxide which is then reduced to beryllium metal or converted to various beryllium compounds. Water solubility of beryllium and its salts varies, with beryllium chloride, fluoride, nitrate, phosphate, and sulfate all being soluble in water. Other compounds are either insoluble (e.g. beryl, beryllium oxide) or only slightly soluble. Beryllium metal exposed to air forms an oxide coating which protects it from further oxidation, similar to aluminium. Beryllium reacts with strong acids and strong bases, and forms shock sensitive mixtures with some chlorinated solvents such as carbon tetrachloride and trichloroethylene.
The National Pollutant Inventory (NPI) holds data for all sources of beryllium and compounds emissions in Australia.
Links to an another web site
Opens a pop-up window